Snoring Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Animation
Snoring and sleep apnea.In normal breathing, air enters the nostrils and goes through the throat and the tracheato the lungs. In people who snore this airway is partiallyobstructed by excess tissue of the throat, such as large tonsils, large soft palate ortongue. Another common cause of obstruction is the dropping of the tongue into the throatdue to over relaxation of tongue muscles during sleep. Air currents competing throughnarrow spaces in the throat cause the soft palate essentially a piece of soft tissuehanging in the throat to vibrate. This vibration is the source of the noise we hear when someoneis snoring.
Sleep apnea happens when the airway is completelyobstructed, no air can go through and the person stops breathing. This cessation ofbreathing triggers the brain to respond by waking up the person just enough to take abreath. This repeats itself again and again during the course of the night and may resultin sleep deprivation. Snoring and mild sleep apnea may be treatedwith a mandibular advancement device. This device is designed to move the lower jaw andthe tongue slightly forward and thus making the space in the back of the throat larger.
Sleep Apnea Sleep Deprivation and Obesity
Hi I'm Ananth Karumanchi, a nephrologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and a professor of medicineat Harvard Medical School. I'm Virend Somers a cardiologistand professor of medicine at Mayo in Rochester. Somers, why should the hypertension community care about sleepé So, sleep and blood pressure
are very closely linked. Basically, in a physiologic sense, when people fall asleepthe blood pressure falls. What we know is if yourblood pressure doesn't fall at night when you're sleeping you fall into the nondipper category and that puts you at an increased risk of cardiovascular imports.
We also know that if youhave problems during sleep, if you develop obstructive sleep apnea, it will raise your blood pressure at night and raise your blood pressureeven during the day time. And the third compelling reason to care is that people who are sleep deprived don't get enough sleep at night, whether it's by choice
or whether it's by some external course, these people chronically will tend to have higher blood pressures than those who sleep normally. So, in your opinion, do all patients with hypertension would you recommend them to get a screen for some sort of sleep abnormalities.
No, no I wouldn't becausethe number of people with hypertension is so huge that logistically andeconomically wouldn't be feasible to study all these people. So we need to be veryselective on who we study and some of the points tothink about who we study would be people who have witnesses apneas, meaning the wife or husband says
I see him or her stopbreathing during sleep. That's called a witnessed apnea and a great sign of obstructive apnea. The other is if you hypertensive and you have day time somnolence. If you fall asleep duringthe day time very easily, then you quite likely have sleep apnea. If you have significant obesity,
With primary hypertension you've got this high blood pressure. And well, ultimately thecause is unknown, right. We've got this big laundrylist of risk factors that might contribute. But really we don't knowexactly what did it. With secondary hypertension, the difference is we know exactly
what's causing yourblood pressure to rise. And we can pinpoint thisother medical condition. So the hypertension happens secondary to some other disease. This form of hypertensionaccounts for only about 10% of hypertension cases. And so it's not that common, right, whereas the other 90%have primary hypertension.
So let's sort of justdive right in to some of the common diseases thatcan lead to hypertension. All right, so renal diseasestend to be big time culprits for secondary hypertension. Where when we say renal, we'rereferring to the kidneys. With these, the kidneys don'tfunction as they normally do. So since they're such huge players in regulating blood pressure
through water and sodium regulation, if you've got some kind ofunderlying kidney problem, it can result in this inabilityto get rid of some fluid. And so more fluid in your body leads to higher plasma and blood volume and so higher blood pressure, because remember, flow andresistance in the blood vessels is directly related to blood pressure.
So if you increase flow,you increase blood pressure. And one potential culpritfor kidney diseases is polycystic kidney disease. By looking at poly, we knowthat that means many, right. And cystic refers to cysts which are like these fluidfilled sacs. So this is an inherited condition where you develop these fluidfilled sacs
all around your kidneys. And if these guys get too bigor there are too many of them, they can start to damage ordisrupt your kidney's function, which can cause you tohold on to more fluid, and this will increaseyour blood pressure. Another renal diseaseis glomerular disease. And your glomeruli in your kidneys are like these filters forwaste and salt or sodium.