Snoring Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Animation
Snoring and sleep apnea.In normal breathing, air enters the nostrils and goes through the throat and the tracheato the lungs. In people who snore this airway is partiallyobstructed by excess tissue of the throat, such as large tonsils, large soft palate ortongue. Another common cause of obstruction is the dropping of the tongue into the throatdue to over relaxation of tongue muscles during sleep. Air currents competing throughnarrow spaces in the throat cause the soft palate essentially a piece of soft tissuehanging in the throat to vibrate. This vibration is the source of the noise we hear when someoneis snoring.
Sleep apnea happens when the airway is completelyobstructed, no air can go through and the person stops breathing. This cessation ofbreathing triggers the brain to respond by waking up the person just enough to take abreath. This repeats itself again and again during the course of the night and may resultin sleep deprivation. Snoring and mild sleep apnea may be treatedwith a mandibular advancement device. This device is designed to move the lower jaw andthe tongue slightly forward and thus making the space in the back of the throat larger.
What would happen if you didnt sleep Claudia Aguirre
In 1965, 17yearold high school student,Randy Gardner stayed award for 264 hours. That's 11 days to see howhe'd cope without sleep. On the second day, his eyes stopped focusing. Next, he lost the abilityto identify objects by touch. By day three, Gardner was moodyand uncoordinated. At the end of the experiment,he was struggling to concentrate, had trouble with shortterm memory,
became paranoid, and started hallucinating. Although Gardner recovered withoutlongterm psychological or physical damage, for others, losing shuteye can resultin hormonal imbalance, illness, and, in extreme cases, death. We're only beginning to understandwhy we sleep to begin with,
but we do know it's essential. Adults need seven to eight hoursof sleep a night, and adolescents need about ten. We grow sleepy due to signalsfrom our body telling our brain we are tired, and signals from the environmenttelling us it's dark outside. The rise in sleepinducing chemicals, like adenosine and melatonin,
send us into a light doze that grows deeper, making our breathing and heart rate slow down and our muscles relax. This nonREM sleep is when DNA is repaired and our bodies replenish themselvesfor the day ahead. In the United States, it's estimated that 30% of adultsand 66% of adolescents are regularly sleepdeprived.
This isn't just a minor inconvenience. Staying awake can cause serious bodily harm. When we lose sleep, learning, memory, mood, and reaction time are affected. Sleeplessness may also cause inflammation,
halluciations, high blood pressure, and it's even been linkedto diabetes and obesity. In 2014, a devoted soccer fan died after staying awake for 48 hours to watch the World Cup. While his untimely death was due to a stroke, studies show that chronically sleepingfewer than six hours a night increases stroke risk by four and half times
Beyond the Data Preventing Adverse Health Effects from Nanotechnology
Iskander: I'm John Iskander,welcome to CDC Beyond the Data. In association withtoday's encore presentation on Nano technology forPublic Health Grand Rounds, we're very pleased to have Paul Schulte joining us from CDC's National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health. Paul could you reorientour audience a little bit to Nano technology as Nanotechnology has now moved
from science fiction verymuch into the real world. When we say Nano technology howsmall is small and what kind of industries arewe talking abouté Schulte: Well, onenanometer is the size of ten hydrogen atoms,put side by side. So you get the ideathat we're talking about something that'sextremely small. Something that's generally onlyvisible by electron microscopes.
So, ten hydrogen atoms side byside would be one nanometer. If you recall from thepresentation that I did, as you cut matter down fromlarge pieces to small pieces, when you get downaround sixty nanometers, you start to see newscientific properties. Things are more conductive,they're more magnetic, they're stronger, they're morereactive and you can do a lot of things with that,you can make a lot
of different products. And so Nano technology reallypervades almost all industrial sectors, and essentially,Nano materials will be in almost every kind ofproduct that's manufactured in the future. Right now we see Nano materialsin automobile side panels, we see them in clothes, wesee them in concrete, in food, in every differentkind of electronics
that you can think of. So there's a wide rangeof uses of Nano materials and they're also used inmedicine as possible ways of reaching target,target cells, specifically without hurting thesurrounding area. Iskander: So, very much a partof everyday life and moving into more, almost sciencefiction like applications, and I think you did avery good job of talking
about why we mightwant to use some of these materials,some of the benefits. But, I understand thereare also concerns for some of the workers exposedto these materials. Can you tell me a littlebit about what we've learned about that and maybe some ofwhat we still have to learné Schulte: Well, we're about tenyears into the commercialization of Nano technologies, so, for,in the 90's there was a lot