Obstructive Sleep Apnea Usmle

Snoring Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Animation

Snoring and sleep apnea.In normal breathing, air enters the nostrils and goes through the throat and the tracheato the lungs. In people who snore this airway is partiallyobstructed by excess tissue of the throat, such as large tonsils, large soft palate ortongue. Another common cause of obstruction is the dropping of the tongue into the throatdue to over relaxation of tongue muscles during sleep. Air currents competing throughnarrow spaces in the throat cause the soft palate essentially a piece of soft tissuehanging in the throat to vibrate. This vibration is the source of the noise we hear when someoneis snoring.

Sleep apnea happens when the airway is completelyobstructed, no air can go through and the person stops breathing. This cessation ofbreathing triggers the brain to respond by waking up the person just enough to take abreath. This repeats itself again and again during the course of the night and may resultin sleep deprivation. Snoring and mild sleep apnea may be treatedwith a mandibular advancement device. This device is designed to move the lower jaw andthe tongue slightly forward and thus making the space in the back of the throat larger.

The structure of the eye Processing the Environment MCAT Khan Academy

When we thinkabout breathing problems at night, we could thinkabout the problem coming from three key areas. The first one being a problemarising from the brain and the brain being a key central organ that controls the respiratorycenters that help regulate the lungs so the brainis really important here. The second one being aproblem with upper airways

so if there's anyobstruction to the airways from the mouth and the nose to the lungs, that can cause a problem. And last, but not least,we can also have a problem with the lungs themselvesor the chest wall. Anything that stops thelungs from being able to expand out. So let us take each one ofthese things step by step

and let us start bylooking at the airways. So the main issue with the airways is that obstruction to the airways causes a significant problem interms of breathing at night. And if we consider the airthat goes in through our nose and in through ourmouth reaches our lungs, we have points at which thesoft tissues around our neck may potentially relax atnight and they may potentially

block this airflow intermittently. They may potentially cause an obstruction to this airflow. And when they cause anobstruction to this airflow, you may notice some snoring or gasping and this suggests that airflow is being stopped. That term is, for lack ofeffort, is called apnea,

and all that apnea really means is that there is an absence of airflow. So if the airways are obstructed, we can have something called obstructive sleep apnea. And this condition obstructive sleep apnea is actually very common. It gets worse as people get older.

These soft tissues blockthis airflow that we have and this condition actually results in a variety of daytimeand nighttime symptoms. So we actually mentioned some of the nighttime symptoms, righté We mentioned this can have snoring, gasping for air, and these kind of apneas, these kind of pauses,breaks in the breathing

Restless Legs Syndrome and Sleep Diagnosis and Treatments

Hi, my name is Charlene Gamaldo. I'm a Johns Hopkins neurology sleep faculty member and I'mthe medical director of the Howard County Sleep Disorders Center. My name is Rachel Salas. I'm a sleep neurologist board certified in both specialties. So, restless leg syndrome, that has alsorecently been coined WillisEkbom disorder is a alsleep disorder. It requires four essential criteria

that involves a person who hasuncomfortable sensations in their legs that is associated with an urge to move. This urge to move usually comes on at restand it peaks at night and for that reasonbecause it peaks at night and they want to move it causes disruption in their ability togo to sleep. And for that reason they often show upin a sleep because it causes problems with

ability to go to sleep and causesproblems with daytime functioning as a result. Restless leg syndrome can occur in anyone. There tends to be more of a femalepredominance but again it can occur in anyone. Even children can have it. There tends tobe a hereditary component there. People that have iron deficiencyanemia are more at risk. People that have kidney disease,particularly endstage renal disease.

it can put them at higher risk probablybecause of the iron. Patients with peripheral neuropathy particularly those that suffer fromdiabetes can be at higher risk. There's certain things.certainother disorders that increase the risk for restless legsyndrome, but then again it could also be you know, sporadic.people could justdevelop it. So, treatment strategies for restlessleg syndrome

is number one educate them about itbecause there are exacerbaters out there herparticularly overthecounter medications, anythingwith antihistamines are big culprits for essentially kicking people into you know, these flares of restless legsyndrome. Medications are actually very good forpatients with restless leg syndrome. It can actually improve theirquality of life There's different classes the FDAapproved dopamine agonists

are available. If the patient has restless leg syndrome we'll always check aniron panel to see what their iron status is and if that'sdeficient or even low normal.a lot of times we'll try treating just with iron first and that may be all patients need. For the more severe types, and these are typically what we see, you know, becausepeople are coming to Hopkins you know,

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