Obstructive Sleep Apnea versus Central Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is when the airwaybecomes narrowed or obstructed and you're making the effort to breathe but we do notsee any flow in air movement coming from your nose or mouth. Where central sleep apnea occurswhere your brain forgets to tell your body to breathe. If we're looking at it from avery simplistic term and so we do not see the drive to breathe. So the first step isto come into the and be seen by one of our physicians in the sleep medicine .We'll go through a questionnaire and try to determine what risk factors we think you havefor sleep apnea such as obesity, snoring, daytime sleepiness and then if we think thatyou have a high risk for meeting those criteria
then we would set you up for a sleep studyeither in your home to do an overnight sleep study or in our laboratory, depending on yoursituation. The CPAP can be used to treat both conditions and, in some patients, that isenough. However, there are some patients that have more complex types of central sleep apneathat require more complicated types of machines to treat that condition. Obstructive sleepapnea actually has been linked to a lot of other problems such as high blood pressureand then, you know, difficulty functioning during the day. If it goes untreated for along period of time there's an increased risk of early heart problems and those types ofthings.
Sleep disorders Processing the Environment MCAT Khan Academy
Voiceover: I'm sure we'veall had trouble sleeping at one point or another, maybe trouble falling asleep,staying asleep or waking up or maybe you're forcingyourself to sleep less because you have toomuch to do to lie in bed. But sleep deprivationcan be a serious issue. People who don't get enoughsleep are more irritable and perform worse onmemory and detention tasks
than people who do. So all this can be just a minorannoyance in everyday life, imagine the longtermimplications for let's say, airline pilots, firefighters,security officers or the person driving nextto you on the freeway. For example, one studyin Canada showed that the Monday after the Spring time change, so when people lose an hour of sleep,
the number of trafficaccidents increases sharply compared to the Mondayafter the Fall time change when people get an extra hour of sleep, the number of accidents decreases sharply. So that's just one example,but sleep deprivation also makes people more susceptible to obesity. When you're sleep deprived you'rebody produces more cortisol which is a hormone that tellsyour body to make more fat.
You also produce more of thehormone that tells your body you're hungry, so you end upeating more and turning more of what you eat into fat whichcan contribute to weight gain. And finally sleep deprivationcan also increase your risk for depression and one theoryabout this link is that REM sleep helps your brainprocess emotional experiences, which in turn helpsprotect against depression though we're still notentirely sure about this link.
Most people, now most peopleexperience sleep deprivation at some points in their lives, but the good news isthat most people can get back on track by getting afew nights of good sleep, sort of paying back your sleep debt. Your next question might be then, quot;How much sleep is enough sleepéquot; That's kind of a hard question to answer,
but most adults needabout 78 hours of sleep, but the exact number variesby individual and by age. Babies need a lot more sleep,for example, than older adults often sleep less than 10 or 8hours without severe detriments. Again everyone has troublefalling asleep at some point, but people who have persistentproblems in falling or staying asleep have a more seroussleep disorder called insomnia. There are various medicationsthat can help people
How to Diagnose Sleep Disorders Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment
The first step in treating OSA is, of course,to diagnose it properly. This happens using a sleep study. An overnight polysomnogramwould be a more formal term. And in this a patient is going to go to an accredited sleeplab where a sleep technician will attach a series of electrodes and wires to the bodythat monitor things like respiration, abdominal force, eye movement, so we can track whatsleep stage you are in. And, of course, a breathing monitor and a camera. The most importantof the camera is it actually physically records somebody having an apnea. It's not uncommonfor patients to know that they have awoken themselves by not breathing or to wake upand actually not be able to breathe and take
a second to catch their breath But for somepatients they have no concept of sleep apnea. They think they sleep just fine. It's theirbed partner who can't handle the snoring and the sounds of the apneas and the wakeningwho forces them to reach treatment. After the sleep study is executed, the andsleep technicians will review the results, review the results with you. And at that point,it might warrant another sleep study which we would call a CPAP titration. CPAP standsfor continuous positive airway pressure, and it's basically one of the most naturalistictreatments you find in sleep disorder medicine. It involves taking a mask or nasal unit ofsome kind which is connected to an air hose
to a compressor. And, essentially, this compressorwhich is set at a pressure prescribed by the physician is used to force air into the oralcavity and into the throat to expand the airway and prevent it from collapsing. There's anynumber of different masks and face units that can be used. It used to be in the early daysof sleep medicine that CPAP choices were limited, and the discomfort of CPAP keeps people fromseeking it as treatment. So in this day and age we have so many more options. So manymore people will stay treatment compliant and actually use their CPAP machine whichwill lead to better sleep, better health. Their's other treatments that can be usedfor some people. An oral mandibular advancement
device which is a sort of dental appliancemay be an option. Although that is not indicated for everybody it would be due to certain conditionsin the mouth that lead to sleep apnea. There's also a type of surgery called a UPPP whichinvolves surgery on the uvula and soft palate on the throat. That's usually performed byan ear, nose, throat and, again, that's not always an option for everybody. But thosecould be part of a treatment plan for OSA in particular patients.