Sleep Apnea And Hypertension Pathophysiological Mechanisms

Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea Treatment

Severe Obstructive Sleep ApneaSleep Apnea TreatmentMayo .

Asthma Animation

Asthma is a chronic respiratory conditionwhere the airways in the lungs are inflamed and narrowed causing breathlessness, wheezing,chest tightness and coughing. Symptoms come as recurrent episodes known as asthmatic attacksmost commonly at night or early in the morning. Asthma is usually diagnosed in childhood andlasts for life. The lungs contain millions of air tubes orairways, called bronchi and bronchioles, which bring air in and out of the body. The airwayshave a layer of smooth muscle in their wall which enables them to constrict or dilate.In response to the body's higher demand for air, such as during exercises, the airwaysdilate to increase air flow. In the presence

of pollutants in the air, the airways constrictto prevent the lungs from being polluted. In people suffering from asthma these airwaysare inflamed, narrowed and become more sensitive to certain substances. Asthmatic attack, orexacerbation, happens when the airways react to these substances. During an attack, thesmooth muscle contracts, squeezing the airways, making them even narrower; mucus secretionis also increased which further obstructs the airways.Asthma is most commonly considered as an inflammatory response disease where the body's immunesystem overreacts to certain environmental agents. Causes of asthma are complex and notfully understood but likely involve a combination

of genetic and environmental factors. Familyhistory is a known risk factor for asthma. There are at least over twenty genes associatedwith asthma of which many are involved in the immune system. Most people who have asthmaalso have allergies. Many environmental factors such as air pollution, chemicals, smoke, andallergens have been associated with development of asthma or triggering of asthmatic attacks.Triggers are factors that initiate the attack. These can be very different from person toperson. Common triggers include: allergens, such as pollen, animal fur, petdander, sulfites in preserved food. irritants, such as cigarette smoke, industrialchemicals, dust, household chemicals,.

medications, such as aspirin, beta blockers,. physical activities, exercises. There is no cure for asthma. The most effectiveway to manage symptoms is to identify the triggers of asthmatic attacks and avoid them.There are two main classes of medication: Bronchodilators substances that dilatebronchi and bronchioles are used as shortterm relief of symptoms. Inflammation moderators such as corticosteroids are taken as longterm treatments.Asthma inhalers are used to deliver the medication to the lungs.A number of conditions tend to occur more frequently in people with asthma and shouldbe taken into account when treating asthma:

Allergies, such as eczema and hay fever.These individuals are considered hyperallergic – they have high tendency to develop allergicreactions. The combination of these conditions is known as atopy or atopic syndrome. Immunotherapymay be recommended for this group of patients. Gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD a condition in which stomach acid backs up and damages the mucosal lining of the esophagus.GERD may worsen asthma symptoms and medications for asthma often worsen GERD symptoms. TreatingGERD usually improves asthma and must be included in an asthma treatment plan. Obstructive sleep apnea or OSA – obstruction of the airway at the throat level during sleep.Asthmatic patients are at higher risks of

developing OSA. The mechanism of this associationis largely unknown. Sinusitis: inflammation of paranasal sinuses.Sinusitis commonly worsens asthma symptoms and makes treatments less effective.

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